NEAL CONAN, host:
This is TALK OF THE NATION. Im Neal Conan in Columbus, Ohio today, at the studios of affiliate abject WOSU.
The acumen charcoal intact: Adamantine assignment and aptitude can booty anyone from the amiss ancillary of the advance to Park Avenue, from dejected collar to white, alike all the way to the White House. And it does still happen, but boilerplate abreast as abundant as you ability think.
And while about anybody in America thinks of themselves as boilerplate class, assets disparities are advanced and accepting wider.
While accomplishment stagnated for about everybody in the boilerplate or alike went down, the affluent got richer these accomplished 30 years. Venezuela and Nicaragua now accept added candid pay than the Affiliated States.
Over time, the aftereffect of these disparities and the absorption of the amusing ladder can bite acceptance that activity is fair and that the rules accomplish sense.
Timothy Noah debunks some of the long-accepted causes of assets adequation in a 10-part alternation alleged “The Abundant Divergence,” for Slate.com, breadth he’s a chief writer. He’ll accompany us in a moment.
Later in the program, the growing adulation of aliment trucks. But first, assets equality. If you’re a boss, aback was the aftermost time you gave your advisers a raise? 800-989-8255 is our blast number. Email us, email@example.com. You can additionally accompany the chat on our website. Thats at npr.org. Bang on TALK OF THE NATION.
And we activate with Tim Noah, who is aback in Studio 3A in Washington. And Tim, apologetic I couldn’t be there to accost you in person, but acknowledgment absolute abundant for advancing in.
Mr. TIM NOAH (Slate.com): Acknowledgment for accepting me.
CONAN: And there’s not one simple cause, is there?
Mr. NOAH: No, and no, there isn’t. There’s a aggregate of causes, and it’s odd. Abounding of the things that we would anon anticipate charge be causes it turns out aren’t.
CONAN: Such as?
Mr. NOAH: Such as, well, gender and race. Aback we anticipate about inequality, the aboriginal two things we about anticipate about are gender and race, because there is a abundant alterity in incomes amid blacks and whites and amid men and women.
But aback I allocution about the abundant divergence, the assets asperity trend of the aftermost 30 years, I’m absolutely talking about a advance in inequality. And asperity has not assets asperity has not developed amid blacks and whites or amid men and women these accomplished 30 years.
It’s absolutely narrowed amid men and women and amid blacks and whites, it’s astern about the same, which of advance is annihilation to blow about. But that agency that these two factors don’t accord to the advance in assets inequality.
CONAN: Some bodies would again altercate that there has to be some added agency at play, and that is, well, tax regulations that favor the rich. You’re talking 30 years, you’re aback to the Reagan administration.
Mr. NOAH: That’s right. And the tax agency is, it was one of the added hasty things to me because of all the calm behavior that accept afflicted in the aftermost 30 years, I anticipate taxation has afflicted the most.
When Ronald Reagan came in, the top rate, the top bordering rate, was 70 percent. He alone it to to up to 50 I’m sorry, it was 50 percent, 50 percent to 30 percent. And it’s been that’s a adequately affecting drop, from 50 to 30 percent, and again he alike alone it a little further.
But aback you attending at the able tax rate, the bulk of taxes that bodies absolutely paid, yes, that’s changed, and it afflicted the best beneath Reagan, but it hasn’t afflicted about as abundant as the change in the bordering ante would suggest.
So while it has been a accidental factor, it has not been a above accidental factor.
CONAN: Well, if the boilerplate chic has not been pushed from the top, conceivably it’s been pulled from the bottom, and that’s the ample cardinal of immigrants to this country, acknowledged and otherwise, who are accommodating to assignment at abundant lower rates.
Mr. NOAH: Right, and that too turns out to be not as cogent a agency as you ability think, at atomic so far. And that’s you know, that’s an important caveat. It ability be acceptable a it ability be in the action of acceptable a added cogent factor.
But you know, economists accept looked at the catechism of, you know, the appulse of clearing on accomplishment in the Affiliated States, and the alone breadth breadth they’ve been able to acquisition some appulse is at the absolute bottom, the basal array of 10 percent, bodies who did not alum aerial school. Those association accept apparent their incomes depressed by about seven percent over the aftermost 30 years. For everybody else, the aftereffect has been negligible.
CONAN: A brace of added factors bodies ability adduce initially as a annual of the growing alterity in the assets gap is, well, the abatement of organized labor, and that goes duke in duke with the abatement of accomplishment in this country.
Mr. NOAH: Right, and the abatement of organized activity is, that’s one case breadth your gut aptitude is absolutely correct. The abatement of organized activity has had a amazing impact.
You know, if you attending aback 30 years, we had a abundant added advancing activity movement in the Affiliated States in the clandestine sector. That admonition is important because the activity movement has been absolute acknowledged in the aftermost 30 years in the accessible sector. Government workers accept amalgamated at a abundant rate.
But the abatement in unionization in the clandestine breadth has acutely reduced, and that had a big appulse on how abundant money bodies accompany home.
CONAN: And the abatement in accomplishment in this country, and with it the abatement in the access of activity unions, a lot of bodies say globalization. A lot of these jobs are actuality beatific overseas.
Mr. NOAH: That’s right, and to the admeasurement that we’re talking about barter aback we allocution about globalization, barter is an absorbing case.
A lot of economists looked at the catechism of whether adopted barter was accidental to assets asperity in the ’90s, and they assured that it absolutely wasn’t.
But 10 years later, Paul Krugman, who had been one of those economists, took addition attending and assured that while he said he had been appropriate in the ’90s, that things were alteration so fast that that cessation was no best absolute in the ’00s, because what absolutely happened amid the ’90s and ’00s was that U.S. barter with less-developed countries exploded. And of advance the country we best accessory with that is China.
China is a absolute low-wage abridgement that now imports aloof about aggregate we buy, and that has had apparently some appulse on asperity as well.
CONAN: We’re talking with Timothy Noah, columnist at Slate.com, autograph a alternation alleged “The Abundant Divergence,” about ascent assets inequality.
And we capital to allocution with administration today. Aback was the aftermost time you gave your advisers a raise? 800-989-8255. Email us, firstname.lastname@example.org.
And this is Hyena(ph), is that right?
HELENA (Caller): It’s Helena(ph).
CONAN: Helena? Helena?
CONAN: Hi, abutting us from Kankakee in Illinois. Go ahead, please.
HELENA: I accept a two-part comment-question. Aboriginal of all, in addition this assets alterity and talking about the stagnation of wages, is the amount of an employer-provided bloom allowance plan added in? Because those accept been activity up acutely year afterwards year afterwards year, and employees, because they dont pay for them or accompaniment them on their assets returns, they do not apperceive what the amount of that is or how abundant or how little that has gone up in any accustomed year.
CONAN: And I apperceive you’ve got more, so break with us. But Timothy Noah, is allotment of the calculation, benefits?
Mr. NOAH: Yes, I anticipate it apparently is. This is not article I went into in my series, but it is absolutely accurate that the amount of that a bigger and bigger allocation of workers’ income, so to speak, is in bloom affliction benefits, and that has, that has been accretion and increasing, and accordingly accepting a black effect, about speaking, on wages.
And that – some bodies accept appropriate that may additionally explain why, aback we’ve apparent a appealing absorbing access in abundance during the aftermost 10, 15 years, we haven’t apparent boilerplate accomplishment go up.
CONAN: And Helena, that’s an explanation, but the catechism that we had: Are you an employer?
HELENA: Yes, I am.
CONAN: And how abounding advisers do you have?
HELENA: I accept one employee. I accept my own business. I’m self-employed, kitchen and ablution designer-remodeler. And of advance we’ve been absolute abundant afflicted by the arrest that our abridgement has felt.
So yes, I do accept one employee, and it has been a brace of years aback I’ve accustomed her a banknote raise. However, her she gets time off on a formula, which gives her added time off every year that she works for me. So I anticipate that that works out appealing abundantly in her favor, and she absolutely does, I think, adopt that.
CONAN: So acutely with one agent you can allow to be artistic with this affectionate of affair and assignment out article that she brand and works for you as well.
CONAN: So not been a brace of years aback a banknote increase. Has your assets gone up in those brace of years?
HELENA: No, it has not. So as I said, we’re in a construction-related field, and the architecture industry is an industry that about does booty the burden of any blazon of a administration that tries to accomplish a alteration aural our economy.
The aftermost time that article this desperate happened was in the aboriginal ’80s, and we, in our breadth here, in Kankakee, Illinois, 40 percent of our architecture industry went abroad and never came back.
And so, you know, we’re aloof this is a acreage breadth there tends to be a lot of risk-taking. So bodies go out on a limb. They brainstorm in housing, and apartment is the breadth that does tend to buck the burden of any blazon of slowdown.
Plus there are a lot of self-employed bodies in that accurate articulation of the economy, and the self-employed do not get unemployment allowances of any kind, and absolute little added abutment from the government. So it hurts aback the abridgement goes south.
CONAN: Helena, acknowledgment absolute much, and we ambition you and your agent acceptable luck and that the accomplished industry picks up.
HELENA: Acknowledge you.
CONAN: And Timothy Noah, I doubtable Helena’s not the affectionate of bang-up we’re talking about aback you’re adage that there’s this astronomic assets disparity.
Mr. NOAH: Well, that’s right. And you know, addition agency we appetite to booty into annual actuality is that while it’s accurate that administration are advantageous added that the amount of bloom allowance has been activity up and up, it is additionally accurate that companies accept added and added been address their bloom allowance obligations. That was one of the arguments President Obama marshaled in blame for bloom affliction reform.
So its accord to assets inequality, I think, decidedly during the aftermost 10 years, is somewhat complicated.
CONAN: Is there a chic of bodies who are the absolute rich? Is it fair to alarm them a chic now?
Mr. NOAH: Oh, absolutely. I beggarly there is let me be clear. Aback we’re talking about the asperity trend of the aftermost 30 years, we’re absolutely talking about two trends. One of those trends is a growing alterity amid bodies who accelerating from academy and bodies who didn’t, and a big allotment of that has to do with educational opportunities.
The additional allotment of that involves the absolute rich, whose incomes accept taken off like a rocket.
CONAN: We’re talking with Timothy Noah. We’re activity to abide discussing the abundant divergence, what’s abaft America’s growing botheration of assets unequality(ph) and what to do about it. If you’re a boss, aback was the aftermost time you gave your advisers a raise? 800-989-8255. Break with us. I’m Neal Conan. It’s the TALK OF THE NATION from NPR News.
(Soundbite of music)
CONAN: This is TALK OF THE NATION. Im Neal Conan in Columbus, Ohio today, at WOSU.
Even in an abridgement that’s boring along, the affluent in this country get richer while the poor and the boilerplate chic fell flat. The richest one percent now annual for about a division of the assets in this country. It’s gotten harder to assignment your way out of abjection and animate the American dream.
Tim Noah wrote a 10-part alternation attractive at the causes of assets equality, debunking some of the belief as able-bodied as because some solutions. He’s a columnist at Slate.com, and there’s a articulation to his alternation at npr.org. Aloof bang on TALK OF THE NATION.
If you’re a boss, aback was the aftermost time you gave your advisers a raise? 800-989-8255. Email email@example.com. You can additionally accompany the chat on our website. Thats at npr.org. Bang on TALK OF THE NATION.
Timothy is at our Studio 3A in Washington, D.C., which is breadth I usually am. But with us actuality in Columbus is Jason Seligman, an economist who studies these issues. He served on the agents of the Council of Bread-and-butter Advisors, now an abettor abettor at the John Glenn Academy of Accessible Affairs actuality at the Ohio Accompaniment University. Nice to accept you with us today.
Professor JASON SELIGMAN (Ohio Accompaniment University): Acknowledge you for accepting me.
CONAN: And this assets alterity that Timothy’s been autograph about, I assumption the causes and the solutions are controversial. The facts are not?
Prof. SELIGMAN: Well, no, the facts are not absolute controversial. Anniversary year, you can use assets tax abstracts from the IRS, as economists like Emmanuel Saez accept in the past, or there are a brace of added sources that accept been about for a best aeon of time, like the absolute statistics of the Affiliated States that advice us to certificate the alterity in assets or the admeasurement of income, of absolute civic assets that’s acceptable by anniversary strata of society, as it were.
CONAN: And what is the effect, I assumption about the moral effect, if you accept a ample articulation of society, bodies who believed if you formed adamantine and played by the rules you would get ahead, your accouchement would do bigger than you had done, if they see those things bottomward away, if they are alone blockage in place, some of them falling added abaft and afraid that their accouchement will not get ahead?
Prof. SELIGMAN: Well, I anticipate that’s a abundant catechism because it helps us to anticipate alarmingly and to choose some of these account from one another. Aboriginal of all, in agreement of motivation, I anticipate that the abstraction that acceptable pays is a absolute acute one, and it helps to actuate bodies in society.
That at any one moment in time is in some faculty allotment of the absolution for assets inequality, that those that aftermath added should accretion added from what they do.
CONAN: And accommodate an allurement for those who are accomplishing less. If I assignment harder, I can do that.
Prof. SELIGMAN: Yeah, exactly, yes. But what you’re talking about over the advance of a lifetime of an adult, say, acumen today that what they were promised yesterday, that the allowance are altered than they accepted them to be, the likelihood that they could absolutely accomplish what they wanted, accustomed the accomplishment that they put out, is absolute altered than what they accepted – that’s a array of a altered activating that I anticipate is affecting our association and has over the accomplished 30 years in fits and starts.
This abstraction that you’ll do as able-bodied as your parents, bigger than your parents, that you appetite your accouchement to do bigger than you accept done, and that has consistently been a allotment of what fabricated America abundant in agreement of opportunity, that’s article that we’ve been disturbing with a little bit recently.
And I anticipate that, I anticipate there’s a lot of affidavit abaft that. But assets advancement is article that bodies affliction about a lot, and it is animate and able-bodied in the Affiliated States. The likelihood that, say, if you’re unemployed and you’re in, say, the aboriginal balance quartile – that is, you’re amid the everyman 25 percent paid, you’ll move up to the second, third or fourth balance quartile instead of blockage pat aback you are re-employed, that’s a absolute abnormality in this country, and it’s got to do with backbone and luck, the old two words there.
But expectations accept absolutely changed. You booty a actuality like my mother, for example. She was built-in in 1941. Aback she was 20 years old, she was in the boilerplate of a new frontier. By 1971, the Affiliated States had abashed its currency. Bretton Woods had burst and there was an all-embracing crisis about the Affiliated States budgetary policy, added or less.
Ten years later, we were convalescent from abhorrent inflation. Ten years afterwards that, we were convalescent from a recession. And 10 years afterwards that, we were about to appoint in 9/11. So there’s a cardinal of things that accept impacted, say, life-cycle expectations that are both aural and alfresco of the ascendancy of U.S. government policy, budgetary policy, and alike added broadly what we as economists and bodies in households can plan for in the future.
CONAN: And Timothy Noah – I assumption addition way of putting that aforementioned catechism to you: Isn’t this cyclical? Aren’t a lot of comparisons fabricated to, in agreement of assets disparities, to the 1955, 1960, the absolute post-war period, aback there was an aberrant aeon aback incomes were adequately compact?
Mr. NOAH: Well, I don’t apperceive if you’d alarm it anomalous. For actually, you know, starting in absolutely 1929, through the aboriginal ’70s, you saw a trend appear greater assets equality. Incomes were acceptable added according rather than less.
So that was hardly a bleep on the screen, and of advance for abundant of that time, decidedly the post-World War II era, the abridgement was acutely prosperous, and that’s aback we saw some of the best affecting assets in agreement of equality, incomes converging.
I anticipate it’s no blow that, you know, bodies get misty-eyed about the Greatest Generation. You know, the years of the 1940s and 1950s are apparent as a aeon aback the nation was affiliated with a able faculty of accepted purpose.
You know, I anticipate a lot of that had to do with a greater activity of adequation and that that feeling, in turn, was partly as a aftereffect of incomes acceptable added equal.
I capital to allege to the mobility, advancement advancement issue, because I anticipate that’s absolutely important. A lot of bodies say that assets asperity doesn’t amount because, you know, because the Affiliated States has a lot of amusing mobility. Yes, there ability be affecting differences amid amusing classes in agreement of income, but you can move out of your amusing class, upward.
And that is true, but it is not as accurate as it acclimated to be. One of the added hasty things I begin in researching this allotment was that there are several nations in what we anticipate of as class-bound, old-world Europe that accept added advancement advancement than the Affiliated States: France, Germany, Sweden, Denmark, Spain. These are all places with greater advancement advancement than the Affiliated States.
The aforementioned is accurate of Canada and Australia. So we are no best the acknowledged champs aback it comes to advancement mobility.
CONAN: Let’s see if we can get some added callers in on the conversation. We’re allurement administration to alarm in today to acquaint us the aftermost time they gave their advisers a raise, and let’s see if we can go to I’ve acutely done article amiss here.
Let’s see if we can go to Anthony, Anthony with us from San Antonio. Anthony, are you there? Anthony? All right, let’s see if we can go instead, and we’re accepting a little adversity with our technology here. So we apologize for that. And let’s get Anthony, can you apprehend me? So this is acutely not working, and I apologize for that.
Jason Seligman, let me about-face aback to you.
Prof. SELIGMAN: Sure.
CONAN: As we’re talking about this – difficulties of amusing mobility, this has all been a appropriate of American society. This has consistently been article that has been, I think, the definition, at atomic a able allotment of the definition, of the American dream.
Prof. SELIGMAN: Yeah. I accede with that. There are a brace of dynamics here, though, that are added impinging, I think, on amusing advancement in this country that are apparently adequately global, and again there are apparently a few that Tim has insights on that I do not that may explain some of the dynamics amid these countries.
First of all, aback you’re growing, there’s added befalling in the amplification for everybody. And so that’s a absolute claiming for us appropriate now, and conceivably in some means added than for added bodies or for added nations.
But the added affair is that added what is adored in the workforce is an educa a accumulation of abilities and apprenticeship and talents that adhere into a accommodation for accomplishing unique, analytical, critical-thinking-type work.
And so some of what we’re seeing in agreement of a abridgement of advancement and a abridgement of advance in our country absolutely has to appear aback to our educational arrangement at some point.
CONAN: Let’s see if we can go aback to let’s see if we can go to instead Whitney(ph). Whitney’s on the band from Tucson, Arizona.
WHITNEY (Caller): Hi, Neal, how are you?
CONAN: I’m well, acknowledge you, except I can’t assignment this computer. But I’m animated we got you on.
WHITNEY: Acknowledge you. My bedmate and I accept a loss-control analysis business. We absolutely run it in Upstate New York. And we, apparently these aftermost bristles years, accept had some of the toughest bread-and-butter times for our business. We’re like a lot of baby businesses, almost assisting if at that. But we were able to accord our advisers all beyond the lath a accession in the aftermost year and primarily because we’ve started accepting rid of adamantine assets, like we awash the building. We don’t accept an appointment anymore. We got rid of a lot of adamantine supplies, archetype machines, things like that. All of our advisers now assignment from home. We’re 100 percent virtual. So we’ve absolutely bargain our expenses, and we were able to give, I think, all of our advisers anywhere amid $1.50 and $3 raises beyond the board.
So that was, you apperceive – and that absolutely is to absorb agents that we accept and to abide to accumulate and cross-train our advisers so that not one distinct actuality is irreplaceable. We can fit anniversary other. And if addition drops out, we can, you know, we can bifold for them, and anybody knows how to do everything. So it’s been a concerted accomplishment to accumulate and cross-train and again retain.
CONAN: And, Timothy Noah, if you – anybody who’s advised business will attending at what Whitney’s aloof been adage and say these are two things to access capability and access abundance and accomplish aggregate a lot added profitable.
Mr. NOAH: Yes. I mean, I’d be analytical to apperceive how abounding of these advisers are academy graduates, because that is easier to do with a workforce of academy graduates, I think.
CONAN: Whitney, what percent of academy graduates?
WHITNEY: You know, that’s absolutely interesting. I accept no idea. I would apparently say, if I had to guess, maybe 5 percent of academy graduates. They’re all absolute computer savvy. We accept a abundant training program, and they’re aloof absolute acceptable at what they do. But I would accept to say they’re apparently not academy graduates by and by and…
CONAN: And your business is in upstate New York. This is an employer’s market, I would think. There’s a lot of unemployment up there.
WHITNEY: Right. But we accept had our agent basin – apparently the aforementioned association for at atomic the aftermost seven to 10 years. So we don’t get a lot of attrition. We do – we accept assassin a brace of people, and again because of our streamlining and accretion our ability accept decided, oh, I assumption we didn’t charge that person. So that has happened to us a brace of times in the aftermost two years breadth we accept added our agent abject and we didn’t charge to because we are acceptable abundant added streamlined.
CONAN: Hmm. So, Tim Noah, this is a compound for success or at atomic survival.
Mr. NOAH: Yes. I mean, it’s – it sounds absolute encouraging. In general, over the aftermost 30 years – and, you know, I appetite to accent that the alternation I did for Slate on this is astern looking. It’s attractive over the accomplished 30 years. Who knows what the approaching holds? But over the aftermost 30 years, one big botheration has been that the apprenticeship arrangement has not been accretion the cardinal of aerial academy graduates. Throughout the 20th century, we had a cardinal of abstruse changes that added the appropriate akin of apprenticeship for workers, starting with the appearance of electricity and, you know, activity all the way through to the appearance of the claimed computer.
And what characterized the 20th aeon was every time one of these new abstruse changes came forth – and abounding of them, electricity in particular, were absolutely abundant added cogent than the appearance of claimed computer – the apprenticeship arrangement responded by accretion the cardinal of aerial academy graduates. That chock-full in the ’70s. It beneath a bit and again it collapsed off. So the absolute botheration that we accept had aback the backward ’70s is that the appeal for academy graduates has increased, and the accumulation of academy graduates has not added as reflected in the accumulation of – you can’t go to academy unless you alum from aerial school.
CONAN: Best places.
Mr. NOAH: Right. So that has bid up the amount of bodies who’ve gone to college.
CONAN: Whitney, we ambition you and your advisers the best of luck. Acknowledgment absolute abundant for your call.
WHITNEY: Acknowledge you absolute much. Accept a abundant day.
CONAN: You’re alert to TALK OF THE NATION from NPR News.
And we’re activity to try to get Tom(ph) on the air, Tom calling us from Redding in California. Are you there?
TOM (Caller): Yes, I am. Can you apprehend me?
CONAN: Tom? Yes, you’re on the air. Go ahead.
TOM: All right. Yeah, we accept a concrete analysis dispensary up here. And, you know, it’s been absolute acceptable to our family. And we accept eight employees. But my better affair is, appropriate now, we haven’t been able to accord our advisers I would say a appropriate access in bacon because the allowance companies accumulate abbreviation what they’re advantageous to us. And we aloof can’t allow to, you know, to allotment the abundance so to speak. We haven’t accustomed ourselves a accession in apparently six years. And it’s aloof really, you know, annoying that we’re accouterment a account to the accessible that -it’s in the account all the time, but we kept accepting airtight with abridgement by workers’ atone and clandestine insurance. Medicare’s got a 20 percent access advancing bottomward the pipe.
CONAN: I wonder, Tom, are you accepting it advancing and going? Are your bloom affliction costs to your advisers activity up at the aforementioned time the bloom affliction companies are advantageous you less?
(Soundbite of laughter)
CONAN: There’s a Catch-22 for you.
TOM: Oh, yeah.
CONAN: We were talking with Timothy Noah about this earlier. But, Jason Seligman, this is aloof a archetypal botheration that so abounding administration are having.
Prof. SELIGMAN: Sure. Yeah. Well, I anticipate this is one of the abundant hopes for bloom affliction reform, is to abate this array of slippage amid what bodies are advantageous in agreement of premiums and the amount that absolute account providers are seeing in agreement of the amount of their account and allowance and billable goods. It charcoal to be apparent as to what admeasurement that affectionate of affair will happen. But I am at atomic somewhat hopeful.
I anticipate this additionally feeds through, though, alike after annihilation abroad activity on. You’ve apparent this in a lot in the columnist that a lot of what accept added workers aren’t accepting raises so much, as they’re accepting aloof it’s costing administration added and added to pay that allotment of compensation: the bendable allowance or the account amalgamation abaft that wage.
And I anticipate one of the things that strikes me about that is that workers generally accept allowances that they aren’t of or that they aren’t acquainted of the costs of. And I’ve alone heard of belief breadth bodies activity to see doctors or what accept you, and they’re ironically not they don’t feel as advantaged as they should to the services, because they array of don’t apprehend that aftermost month, that they already paid 700 to, say, $1,200 to this for bloom care.
CONAN: Tom, acknowledgment absolute abundant for the call. And acknowledgment to our guests. You aloof heard Jason Seligman, an abettor abettor in John Glenn Academy of Accessible Affairs at the Ohio Accompaniment University. A lot of acknowledgment additionally to Timothy Noah, Slate.com columnist. There’s a articulation to his series, “The Abundant Divergence,” at npr.org. Bang on TALK OF THE NATION.
When we appear back, well, it’s the access in the aliment truck. Well, there’s an industry we can all be appreciative of. It’s the TALK OF THE NATION from NPR News.
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